ISAAC


ISAAC
ISAAC (middle of the second century), tanna. He is not mentioned in the Mishnah but is often cited in beraitot, especially those dealing with halakhic exegesis in the Talmuds, and in the halakhic Midrashim of the school of R. Ishmael: Mekhilta, Sifrei Numbers, and Sifrei Deuteronomy. It appears that he was a Babylonian, and if so he was one of the earliest known tannaim hailing from Babylonia. During the period of persecution following the Bar Kokhba War, when Hananiah, the nephew of R. Joshua b. Hananiah, attempted to proclaim leap years and to sanctify new moons in Babylonia, and thereby make Babylonia independent of Ereẓ Israel, Rabbi (the nasi at the time, perhaps simeon b. gamaliel ) sent him "three communications through R. Isaac and R. Nathan" so as to restrain the Diaspora from taking this step (TJ, Sanh. 1:2). Isaac moved to Ereẓ Israel, where he debated halakhic matters, particularly with the disciples of R. Ishmael. He also associated with R. Simeon b. Yoḥai (Gen. R. 35:16), and engaged in dispute with Judah ha-Nasi and others (Ber. 48b, Git. 27b, etc.). Among his expositions of biblical verses some are of an aggadic character: "Remember the Sabbath day, i.e., count not (the days of the week) as others count them, but count them with reference to the Sabbath" (Mekh., Jethro, 7). He also engaged in mystical studies (Ḥag. 13a). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bacher, Tann; Hyman, Toledot, 78ff.; Epstein, Tanna'im, 570. (Zvi Kaplan and Shmuel Safrai) ISAAC ISAAC (seventh century), gaon, head of the academy in Firuz-Shapur in Babylonia. In 658 the city was captured by Caliph Ali. Isaac, together with other Jewish notables, at the head of 90,000 Jews, welcomed the caliph upon his entry; the conqueror in turn gave the Jewish delegation a cordial reception. No responsa or decisions written by this gaon are extant. The commentaries and decisions mentioned in the responsa of the geonim and other early authorities and attributed to a R. Isaac (Sha'arei Teshuvah, no. 217; zedekiah anav , Shibbolei ha-Leket, no. 225; abraham b. isaac of Narbonne, Sefer ha-Eshkol, 2 (1868), 158; Aaron ha-Kohen of Lunel, Orḥot Ḥayyim, ed. by M. Schlesinger, 2 (1902), 414, et al.) originated with another R. Isaac, a gaon of Sura, who was also known as Isaac Zadok. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Harkavy, Zikkaron la-Rishonim ve-gam la-Aḥaronim, 1, Teshuvot ha-Ge'onim (1887), 355–6; B.M. Lewin (ed.), Iggeret Rav Sherira Ga'on (1921), 101; Weiss, Dor, 4 (1904), 7–8; J. Mueller, Mafte'aḥ li-Teshuvot ha-Ge'onim (1891), 62; Mann, in: JQR, 8 (1917/18), 340–1. (Simha Assaf) ISAAC ISAAC, Jewish merchant of Aachen, the first Jew in Germany to be mentioned by name. In 797 he was appointed by Charlemagne as guide and interpreter to an official delegation to Harun al-Rashid, entrusted with a delicate and important mission. Charlemagne's ambassadors died on the way and Isaac completed the journey and was received in audience when he returned four years later. He brought with him precious gifts from the caliph, including an elephant. According to one account machir , the Babylonian scholar credited with founding a Jewish academy in Narbonne, traveled from the East to Europe with Isaac. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Germ Jud, 1 (1963), xxviii; Graetz, Hist, 3 (1949), 143; M. Steinschneider, Jewish Literature (1965), 81; S. Katz, Jews in Visigothic Spain and France (1937), 133; Baron, Social2, 4 (1957), 45, 257. ISAAC ISAAC (Ishak; late 12th or early 13th century), Spanish-Hebrew poet. Isaac is only known from his Mishlei Arav or Mishlei Musar, a translation of an Arabic text which is no longer extant, comprising proverbs, ethical poems, and prose passages. The material is divided into 50 sections called "gates." The last gate includes admonitions and proverbs in poetic form. The most interesting of them is Ḥidat ha-Nazir ve-ha-Soḥer ("The Riddle of the Nazirite and the Merchant"), an allegorical tale which in character and presentation is reminiscent of ben ha-melekh ve-ha-nazir ("The Prince and the Hermit") of Abraham Ibn Ḥasdai . These proverbs are of great importance for research into the motifs of Hebrew proverbs and poetry, and they also shed light upon the literary taste of Isaac's time. Several of them are already cited by Menahem b. Solomon Meiri (1249–1316) in his Kiryat Sefer (Smyrna, 1863–1881). The proverbs and poems in the supplement to Mivḥar ha-Peninim of jedaiah ha-Penini Bedersi (Venice, 1546) are taken in their entirety from the Mishlei Arav. In those poems written in the form of an acrostic the name Ishak appears. According to Steinschneider, the author of the Mishlei Arav was in fact   Isaac b. Krispin, author of the Sefer ha-Musar mentioned in the Taḥkemoni of al-Ḥarizi , in which case he lived at a much earlier date. His book has been published once only in serial form by S. Sachs in Ha-Levanon (vols. 2–6, 1865–69). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Steinschneider, Uebersetzungen, 884–7; Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (19602), 60–66; A.M. Habermann, in: Sinai, 25 (1945), 288–99; Davidson, Oẓar, 4 (1933), 423f. (Abraham David)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ISAAC — (Heb. יִשְׂחָק ,יִצְחָק), son of abraham and sarah , second of the patriarchs of the people of Israel. Isaac was born when Abraham was 100 years old (Gen. 21:5) and Sarah 90 (17:17), exactly a quarter of a century after the family had migrated… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Isaac II — Ange Monnaie d Isaac II Ange Isaac II Ange (° 1155 † 1204) est un empereur byzantin (1185 1195 et 1203 1204), fils d’Andronic Ange et d’Euphrosyne Kastamonides. C’est un arrière petit fils d’Alexis Ier Comnène …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Isaac — • The son of Abraham and Sara Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Isaac     Isaac     † Catholi …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • ISAAC — Deuxième personnage de l’histoire patriarcale et de la généalogie qui la sous tend, Isaac se situe comme fils d’Abraham et père de Jacob. «Isaac» est un nom théophore (dont l’élément divin se trouve absent: Yischaq, «que [Dieu] rie», ou «[Dieu] a …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • ISAAC (H.) — ISAAC ou ISAAK HEINRICH (1450 env. 1517) Organiste et compositeur qui se disait originaire des Flandres et qu’on peut rattacher au courant dit franco flamand tel qu’il se manifesta en Italie. Isaac mourut à Florence, où Laurent de Médicis l’avait …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • ISAAC (J.) — ISAAC JORGE (1837 1895) De père israélite, l’écrivain colombien Jorge Isaac est resté marqué par le décor de son enfance, la vallée du Cauca où était établie l’hacienda paternelle. Appartenant au groupe du Mosaico qui désigne à la fois une revue… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • ISAAC — may refer to:*ISAAC (cipher), a pseudorandom number generator *ISAAC (comics), a supercomputer in Marvel Comics …   Wikipedia

  • Isaac — Isaac,   Yzaac [ iz ], Heinrich, flämischer Komponist, * in den Niederlanden um 1450, ✝ Florenz 26. 3. 1517; wurde bald nach 1480 von Lorenzo I. de Medici als Organist (an San Giovanni und Santa Maria del Fiore) nach Florenz berufen. Nach dem… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Isaac — m Biblical name, borne by the son of Abraham, who was about to be sacrificed by his father according to a command of God which was changed at the last moment. A ram, caught in a nearby thicket, was sacrificed instead (Genesis 22: 1–13). Isaac… …   First names dictionary

  • Isaac — C est en Normandie (76) que le nom est de très loin le plus répandu. On le rencontre aussi dans le Pas de Calais et en Guadeloupe. Il correspond au prénom biblique porté par le second fils d Abraham. Il signifie en hébreu il rira (yiSHaq), et a… …   Noms de famille


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